Strand 1: Reading Process


Reading Process consists of the five critical components of reading, which are Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Fluency, Vocabulary and Comprehension of connected text. These elements support each other and are woven together to build a solid foundation of linguistic understanding for the reader.

Concept 1: Print Concepts

Demonstrate understanding of print concepts.


(Grades K-3)




Concept 2: Phonemic Awareness

Identify and manipulate the sounds of speech.


(Grades K-2)


Concept 3: Phonics

Decode words, using knowledge of phonics, syllabication, and word parts.


(Grades K-3)


Concept 4: Vocabulary

Acquire and use new vocabulary in relevant contexts.


PO 1.  Determine the meaning of vocabulary using linguistic roots and affixes (e.g., Greek, Anglo-Saxon, Latin).


PO 2.  Use context to identify the intended meaning of unfamiliar words (e.g., definition, example, restatement, synonym, contrast).


PO 3.  Use context to identify the meaning of words with multiple meanings (e.g., definition, example, restatement, contrast).  


PO 4.  Determine the meaning of figurative language, including similes, metaphors, personification, idioms, hyperbole, and technical language.


PO 5.  Identify the meanings, pronunciations, syllabication, synonyms, antonyms, and parts of speech of words, by using a variety of reference aids, including dictionaries, thesauri, glossaries, and CD-ROM and the Internet when available.


Concept 5: Fluency

Read fluently.  


PO 1.  Read from a variety of genres with accuracy, automaticity (immediate recognition), and prosody (expression).


Concept 6: Comprehension Strategies

Employ strategies to comprehend text


PO 1.  Predict text content using prior knowledge and text features (e.g., illustrations, titles, topic sentences, key words).


PO 2.  Confirm predictions about text for accuracy.


PO 3.  Generate clarifying questions in order to comprehend text.


PO 4.  Use graphic organizers in order to clarify the meaning of the text.


PO 5 Connect information and events in text to experience and to related text and sources.


PO 6.  Apply knowledge of the organizational structures (e.g., chronological order, compare and contrast, cause and effect relationships, logical order, by classification) of text to aid comprehension.


PO 7.  Use reading strategies (e.g., drawing conclusions, determining cause and effect, making inferences, sequencing) to interpret text.


Strand 2: Comprehending Literary Text

Comprehending Literary Text identifies the comprehension strategies that are specific in the study of a variety of literature.

Concept 1: Elements of Literature

Identify, analyze, and apply knowledge of the structures and elements of literature


PO 1. Analyze plot development (e.g., conflict, subplots, parallel episodes) to determine how conflicts are resolved.


PO 2. Compare (and contrast) themes across works of prose, poetry, and drama.


PO 3. Describe a character, based upon the thoughts, words, and actions of the character, the narrator's description, and other characters.


PO 4. Contrast points of view (e.g., first vs. third, limited vs. omniscient) in literary text.


PO 5. Analyze the relevance of the setting (e.g., time, place, situation) to the mood and tone of the text.


PO 6.  Draw conclusions about the style, mood, and meaning of literary text based on the author's word choice.


PO 7. Analyze the characteristics and structural elements (essential attributes) of a variety of poetic forms (e.g., epic, lyric, sonnet, ballad, elegy, haiku, free verse).


Concept 2: Historical and Cultural Aspects of Literature

Recognize and apply knowledge of the historical and cultural aspects of American, British, and world literature.


PO 1.  Describe the historical and cultural aspects found in cross-cultural works of literature.


PO 2. Identify common structures and stylistic elements in literature, folklore, and myths from a variety of cultures.


Strand 3: Comprehending Informational Text


Comprehending Informational Text delineates specific and unique skills that are required to understand the wide array of informational text that is a part of our day-to-day experiences.

Concept 1: Expository Text

Identify, analyze, and apply knowledge of the purpose, structures, and elements of expository text.


PO 1.  Restate the main idea (explicit or implicit) and supporting details in expository text.


PO 2.  Summarize the main idea (stated or implied) and critical details of expository text, maintaining chronological, sequential, or logical order.  


PO 3.  Distinguish fact from opinion in expository text, providing supporting evidence from text.


PO 4.  Identify the author's stated or implied purpose(s) for writing expository text.


PO 5  Locate specific information by using organizational features (e.g., table of contents, headings, captions, bold print, italics, glossaries, indices, key/guide words, topic sentences, concluding sentences, end notes, footnotes, bibliographic references) in expository text. (Connected to Research Strand in Writing) 


PO 6.  Locate appropriate print and electronic reference sources (e.g., encyclopedia, atlas, almanac, dictionary, thesaurus, periodical, CD-ROM, website) for a specific purpose. ( Connected to Research Strand in Writing )


PO 7.  Differentiate between primary and secondary source materials. ( Connected to Research Strand in Writing )


PO 8.  Interpret graphic features (e.g., charts, maps, diagrams, illustrations, tables, timelines, graphs) of expository text. (Connected to Research Strand in Writing)


PO 9.  Apply knowledge of organizational structures (e.g., chronological order, comparison and contrast, cause and effect relationships, logical order, classification schemes) of expository text to aid comprehension.


PO 10.  Make relevant inferences about expository text, supported by text evidence.


PO 11.  Compare (and contrast) the central ideas and concepts from selected readings on a specific topic.


PO 12.  Explain how authors use elements (e.g., language choice, organization) of expository text to achieve their purposes.


Concept 2: Functional Text

Identify, analyze, and apply knowledge of the purpose, structures, clarity, and relevancy of functional text.


PO 1.  Use information from text and text features to determine the sequence of activities needed to carry out a procedure.


PO 2.  Determine what information (e.g., steps in directions, legend, supplies needed, illustrations, diagram, sequence) is extraneous in functional text.


PO 3.  Interpret details from a variety of functional text (e.g., warranties, product information, technical manuals, instructional manuals, consumer safety publications) for a specific purpose (e.g., to follow directions, to solve problems, to perform procedures, to answer questions.


PO 4.  Evaluate the adequacy of details and facts from functional text to achieve a specific purpose.


Concept 3: Persuasive Text

Explain basic elements of argument in text and their relationship to the author's purpose and use of persuasive strategies.


PO 1.  Determine the author's specific purpose for writing the persuasive text.


PO 2.  Evaluate the effectiveness of the facts used to support an author's argument regarding a particular idea, subject, concept, or object.

PO 3.  Describe the intended effect of persuasive strategies and propaganda techniques (e.g., bandwagon, peer pressure, repetition, testimonial, transfer, loaded words) that an author uses.


PO 4Identify specific instances of bias in persuasive text.